Original Research Article
Year: 2016 | Month: July | Volume: 3 | Issue: 7 | Pages: 1-5
Phenotypic Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Yield and Yield Component in Rice (Oryza Sativa)
Hailemariam Solomon1, Dagne Wegary2
1Researcher in Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Assosa Agricultural Research Center (Cereal Research Case Leader).
2Senior Researcher, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Ethiopia.
Corresponding Author: Hailemariam Solomon
Rice is among one of the three major food crops of the world and also a stable food for majority of African countries. In Ethiopia rice is becoming more popular and considered as a strategic crop and believed to assure food security. Rice research in Ethiopia is focused on evaluating the rice genotypes based on their growing ecosystems in relation to biotic and abiotic factors and hence more upland rice varieties have been generated than for lowland ecosystem. Additionally, the rice genotypes have been evaluated based on their growing ecosystems and not so far the upland rice genotypes were studied under lowland condition. Hence, the objective of the study was to show phenotypic correlation and direct and indirect cause of yield and yield components of upland rice genotypes under lowland condition. Ten different upland rice genotypes were evaluated under lowland condition at Assosa and Woreta Agricultural research centers in 2014. Correlation of traits revealed that grain yield exhibited significant and positive correlation with plant height (r =0.430) and harvest index (r =0.390). Days to heading (r=0.760), days to maturity (r= 0.680), and plant height (r=0.660) exhibited positive and highly significant association with above ground biomass. Panicle length (r=0.500) exhibited significant and positive correlation with above ground biomass. Days to heading (r=0.765) showed positive and significant associations with days to maturity. Harvest index (r=-0.600) had negative and significant correlation with above ground biomass. Days to heading (r=-0.510) and plant height (r=-0.388) exhibited negative and significant associations with harvest index. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the highest and positive direct effect on grain yield exhibited by harvest index (0.667) followed by panicle length (0.466), above ground biomass (0.381), plant height (0.356) and thousand grain weight (0.025). Negative direct effect exhibited by days to heading (-0.170), days to maturity (-0.192) and number of filled grain (-0.194). Days to heading (+0.289) exhibited highest positive indirect effect followed by days to maturity (+0.259), plant height (+0.251), panicle length (+0.190), and thousand grain weight (+0.129) on grain yield via above ground biomass. So that the above mentioned traits were identified and they are the most contributing factors for the improvement of rice grain yield. Hence, those traits have to be taken in to consideration in rice breeding program for further improvement of rice production and productivity.
Key words:Ecosystem, grain yield, path coefficient, phenotypic correlation, upland, lowland and yield components.